First time at ZBrush

After trying out Mudbox last year, I wanted to try out some more 3D Sculpting. Therefore, I opened up ZBrush as it seems to be the universal 3D Sculpting Software of the industry, so I felt I needed to practice it. Another reason for practicing it was for our first group project of the year, we are intending on modelling in Maya and sculpting in ZBrush to get a higher level of detail into our 3D Environment.

2017-10-07 (6)

Anyways, the interface of ZBrush is completely different to any other software that I have seen before. It was for that reason I looked up a beginners tutorial on it, to teach me the basics. (I thought it would be applicable, as I am a beginner.)

As I have heard others recommend, “have fun with it”, “practice with no intention of making anything”. With those two things in mind, I just decided to mess around with it until it started to resemble something, so I decided to just go with it. After around an hour or so, here is the result…

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I was going along with the tutorial initially, listening out for all the navigational things and the shortcuts for the brushes… However, once I tried the move tool, I pulled out the snout and just went with it, and so this weird rat creature was born… Honestly, after the move tool, I sort of lost concentration on the tutorial, so I will probably have to go back and re-watch it, but I enjoyed making this and I think it looks alright for my first time at ZBrush. Yeah, I definitely look forward to using ZBrush again.


Head Sculpt


We had to model a class member’s head for our next Imaging and Data Visualisation task. We were required to make their likeness in a 3D sculpture and then use retopology to reconstruct their head in Maya.


For this task I modeled David’s head (images below).

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After following many of James Taylor’s tutorials, I was about to follow his Maya Head Sculpting guide… However, after watching multiple class mates struggle with this process and have to restart in Mudbox. I decided to avoid it and focus on the Mudbox modeling from the beginning.

Here was the Maya tutorial I considered using:

I mainly tried to figure it out myself without using a tutorial. However, I listened to this James Taylor sculpt video (below) during part of the sculpting process to find out which tools were best to use.

For achieving the rough shape, I used mainly a combination of the tools below at varying strengths and sizes.

  • Wax Tool – For Adding Material
  • Foamy Tool – Taking Material Away
  • Grab Tool – Movement/Placement Of Material

Here are a few images of the rough blocking out stage…

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Below is a perfect example of the reference image errors. It is particularly visible within the failed ear attempts (while using the reference images on front/side planes). As you can see, as I fixed it for one image, it messed it up as soon as I switched camera angle.

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At this stage particularly is when I realised that my reference images weren’t great. They are both at angles and were difficult to match up evenly. Therefore, I later started to create it more by eye with the reference images at the side of the screen. Personally, I found this a lot easier to manage and work with.

However, here is another failed attempt at the ears using reference images (yet still a better attempt than the previous one).

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Once I started making it by eye and not relying on the camera planes with the reference images is when I feel it began to look more like the subject (David). I actually took new reference images as well which I didn’t use on the camera planes.

I just couldn’t seem to take the photos correctly though, but by this stage it didn’t really matter an awful lot as I was quite far through the sculpt already. Therefore, these images sat alongside the others at the side of my screen as references during the sculpting process.

Image Reference

Anyways, I redid the ear and adjusted the face some more. I decided to block in the hair for a reference to help place the ear and other features.

Blocked in hairBlocked in hair_02

I found this to be very useful in the placement of the ear and other features. It really just brought it all to life and created a resemblance closer to David.

I used the same tools that I mentioned earlier throughout the entire sculpting process. However, some other tools were key in achieving the smaller details and finishing touches. Such as:

  • The Pinch Tool – Creating curves and receding facial features e.g. Lips, Eyes, Ears, Nose, Cheeks.
  • The Smooth Tool – Removing rough surfaces/edges/bumps/marks.
  • The Flatten Tool – Removing rough surfaces/edges/bumps/marks.

Here is the final Mudbox Sculpt:

Head Rotation

Taking A Break

As you can probably see, I prefer working with more exaggerated proportions in my art. This can be seen throughout almost all of my artwork. Therefore, while taking a bit of a break from trying to achieve a close to realistic likeness sculpt… I decided to make a few caricatures out of the sculpt. This started as a joke as I was sitting beside David, the “sculptee”. However, they developed into a few rather interesting quick caricatures. Here are three of my favourite…

The Evil Cartoon Character

The Clown

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The Green Goblin

All of the above are obviously not likeness’s of David.

However, they were entertaining to make and were quick models made as I went along with no other references.


The topology, unlike the Sculpt, required a tutorial for me to understand, in fact, a couple of tutorials. Unfortunately, I came to this conclusion the hard way resulting in a few unsuccessful topology attempts. However, I learned from my mistakes and moved on.

After researching and talking to several class mates, second years as well as my tutor. I built up a small library of topology reference images and videos to look at and follow. Some of which were good, some of which weren’t as good. However, here are the ones that I found most useful…

I printed out a few reference images to ensure I was following the proper workflow in my topology.

Image sourced from Wiki.Polycount.Com

Image sourced from 3DTotal.Com

Anyways, on to the re-topology…

I decided to keep my character with the hair in the topology. I felt that this would make it more visually interesting to look at and work with.


Here is the initial face topology without the ears. I tried to keep it reasonably low-poly to begin with. At this point, it is sitting at just over 1200 polygons.

After getting the main facial features done I went on to work on the ear. The tutorial I used as a reference, sort of skipped through this section and didn’t cover it very well… So I sort of had to work on it myself with no guide. It went rather successfully with the first ear.


However, the second ear was where I had issues, due to the other side not being completely symmetrical, it created a number of errors which I tried to fix but it didn’t work properly.


I kept the first ear that worked and then I deleted and replaced the verts and quads in the second ear.


And this was the end of my Lower-Poly Mesh Topology.


However, when shown with the actual head sculpt alongside/beneath, it lacked a severe amount of detail and didn’t match the contours of the sculpt well enough for my liking.

At this point it was sitting at 1426 faces/polygons, which was nowhere near the limit of 10,000 polygons. Therefore, I created a higher-poly sculpt as well from this one.

I went on to add much more detail to the mesh through edge loops and other tools. Smoothed out the curves and relaxed the verts into place. Allowing them to settle on nicely and fit the curvature of the face more accurately. I added in such things as a hairline and a better detailed surface.

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Below is a rotation of the Higher-Poly Mesh Topology.

Here is the finished head sculpt topology with around 6000 Polygons being used…


Imaging and Data Visualisation Reflection

Reflecting back over the year of Imaging and Data Visualisation, I can’t help but see a definite change within my Maya work. I have learned new processes and ways of tackling issues. I feel that I caught on to Maya reasonably quickly. However, it was through being set interesting and unique tasks that inspired me to latch on to it. I feel that the group work and environment of the class really help in learning and enjoying the whole process.

I especially enjoyed the Floating City in terms of group projects. I feel that this was because of the possibilities and freedom of the task, and due to the fact that we were able to pick our own teams. The group work helps each of us as individuals as well as a team. It builds general group cohesion, motivation and confidence allowing everyone to work to each others strengths as well as their weaknesses.

Although I enjoyed the group tasks, I found the Head Modelling task to be very enjoyable also. It was a nice change and allowed me to build upon my skills individually and try out a new piece of software (Mudbox). I found the modelling of the head to be a far more pleasant and entertaining process in comparison to the re-topology process. Although, I am glad that I have experienced and now have a better understanding of the Maya topology process.

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Overall, I feel that my general Maya skills and knowledge of the program have been vastly improved by studying Imaging and Data Visualisation. I personally feel that the classes and tasks have benefited my in a vast amount of areas both practical and theoretical.

Life Drawing – Semester 2 – Brief Reflection

After another semester of Life Drawing, I can’t help but see a change in my work. The quality of my pieces, and my general process/workflow has changed quite a bit from day one. Back in Semester one I really didn’t see a huge point in the Life Drawing class. However, now looking at it with a further understanding of the Human Anatomy, form and design, I can see the importance of it.

Here are a few of my decent 5-10 minute pieces…

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For me personally, I found semester two far more interesting. The level seemed to go up and we began to work on more difficult sections of the body such as the hands, feet and head. I enjoyed working on these particular areas as we were allowed slightly more time to work on them and add detail. These are also key areas to learn for general knowledge.

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My favourite sessions would have to be the character sessions. Designing the life model as a character from a drawing sheet, or from my imagination was great. I would have often tried to add in more fantasy-based props (daggers/swords) to my normal Life. I found this more entertaining and interesting while drawing in the class.

Overall, I have seen a vast improvement within my proportions, form, drawing capabilities as well as my studies. I personally feel that the weekly life drawing classes have been of a benefit to me and have helped me in all these areas.

Here are some of my favourite pieces from the second Semester of Life Drawing…

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Note: Unfortunately, I handed in my sketchbook early, forgetting that I needed to take photographs for my blog post. I will try to remember to update my post with the homework tasks once I get it back. In my opinion, my homework tasks were substantially better than the in-class drawings, as I was able to practice the techniques that I had learned in the previous class.

12 Principles and Character Design…


As our main assignment for our Life Drawing classes, we were asked to design a character based on Appeal (the 12th Principle of Animation).

In doing so, we were asked to look into the 12 Principles and briefly describe them.

Finally, we are to conclude our year of Life Drawing into a 500-word reflective essay.

Understanding “The 12 Principles Of Animation”

The 12 Principles of Animation were discussed in Frank Thomas’ and Ollie Johnston’s book, Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life (1981). These principles function for both traditional and computer animation. The Principles have been created by condensing Animations Theory into 12 steps to help portray realistic and believable motion and movements that bring characters to life.

Disney Animation - The Illusion Of Life
Disney Animation: The Illusion Of Life – Image sourced from Wikipedia.Com

1. Squash and Stretch

Description – Squash and Stretch is used to show the mass of an object. The softer the object, the more it will be affected by Squash and Stretch. Squash and Stretch are used to help create the illusion of movement. It emphasizes an object’s speed, weight, and force, giving it mass and making it look more realistic.

Below is the first of a twelve-part series of videos made by Alan Becker. They are based upon the 12 Principles of Animation discussed in Disney Animation: The Illusion Of Life.

2. Anticipation

Description – Anticipation is used to create more realistic movement. Firstly, Anticipation is used to prepare the audience for an action. Secondly, to make a realistic movement, it is necessary for the character to build up enough force to fulfill the action.

For example, the run-up before the leap… If the character just leaps without building up the speed (momentum) it will most likely look unrealistic and risk confusing the audience (as they have not been prepared for the action).

3. Staging

Description – Staging is mainly about controlling the audience’s eye, making them focus where you want them to focus, see what you want them to see. Staging is used to make the point extremely and “unmistakably” clear to the audience. Staging is applied to a number of factors including – Acting, Timing, Camera, and Setting. The main action needs to be kept very clear, often utilizing the well known “Rule of Thirds” to frame the action properly.

4. Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose

Description – This covers the process in which an animation is made. Straight Ahead action is drawing each position in the sequence that they come. However, Pose to Pose is drawing the key poses for the animation and filling in the gaps afterward. Generally, Pose to Pose is a better process, as you can check that the early key frames of the animation work, before filling in all the breakdowns. Straight Ahead animation is better for more unpredictable animation such as fire.

5. Follow Through and Overlapping Action

Description – This principle focuses on the external body parts and features that drag behind the rest of the body, continuing to move when the body stops.

For example, whenever a character jumps, the arms move once the body lands to balance out the mass (it also covers items such as clothing and hair moving as well).

Follow through – The continued motion of parts of the body after the body stops.

Overlapping action – The offset of the action between the main body and its other parts.

Drag – Delayed movements of body parts in comparison to the main body.

These can also impact the mass of the object, an object with more follow through and drag will look softer/lighter. This is similar to how Squash and Stretch works.

6. Slow In and Slow Out

Description – Slow In and Out can be thought of similar to acceleration and deceleration. This is a key principle in replicating life-like motion instead of mechanical motion. Movement looks more realistic when it starts slow, speeds up and then finishes slowly again. In 2D the frames are more condensed and closer together at the beginning and end to portray this. However, in 3D it is altered within the graph editor, making it a spline rather than linear graph and giving it a steeper curve in the middle.

7. Arc

Description – Adding Arcs within a movement adds more realism. Making a movement follow an arc makes it seem less robotic and often adds more character/expression to the movement. Mainly because organic movements follow a more circular path (or arc). This is a simple yet necessary step to creating organic life-like motion.

8. Secondary Action

Description – The secondary action helps display the primary action by adding more character and dimension to it. Basically, the secondary actions are the small gestures or other actions that the character makes to help express what they are doing. These often can be as important as the primary action when conveying realism.

The examples in the video below are very useful for understanding this.

9. Timing

Description – This principle states that “the personality and nature of an animation is greatly affected by the number of frames inserted between each main action”.

This basically means that the timing is everything… If the audience isn’t given enough time or is given too much time to view a movement or action it can completely change its meaning, causing it to lose it’s effect/impact.

Note: The standard frame rate for movies is 24 fps (drawing on ones). However, it is also common to work in 12 fps (drawing on twos). Both have their advantages and disadvantages.

10. Exaggeration

Description – Exaggeration is key to creating more realistic animation. This involves making the movement more clear through amplification of the action, almost by making it look less realistic (more exaggerated) it increases its believability. The shorter the animation (a few frames long), the more exaggerated the motion may have to be to make it noticeable (as the eye may not perceive it). Often by taking the exaggeration level too far, you can judge what is enough/appropriate, as you have seen the whole range.

11. Solid Drawing

Description – Solid Drawing is the principle that makes the character/animation feel like they are in a 3D space rather than just flat and boring. This is done by adding a sense of volume, weight, and balance to the character. This also includes being able to draw the character/object from all angles in a 3D environment. This can be done by considering basic solid shapes, vanishing points, contour lines and so on.

Overlap must also be considered within solid drawing to bring your characters and objects out into the 3-Dimensional Space. It shows where parts of the body recede (without it, everything feels flat).

12. Appeal

This is the principle that we have been asked specifically to focus our character design upon.

Description – This principle covers the audience’s opinion of a character. Any character within an animation should be somewhat pleasing to the eye. This is applicable to all the characters, it doesn’t always mean that they have to “good looking”, they just need something within their design that makes them unique, cool or interesting to look at.

There are many ways of going about this, first of which is by giving it a dynamic design. Using a combination of shapes, changing/exaggerating proportions (the defining aspects) and finally keeping it simple (at least initially, as it will need re-drawn many times).

The vast majority of these principles can be paired together with one or more of the other principles. However, they are all key in the creation of a life-like animation.

Character Design

I initially struggled to settle on a character, I designed a number of characters based on appeal.

I considered the ‘appeal’ attribute from a number of perspectives. I considered exaggerating the appealing aspect through –

Making the character cute and likable… (I drew a couple of stylized Baby Groots from Guardians of the Galaxy 2 in there also).

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I tried making the character more sympathetic in most of my drawings (above and below)… As well as making the character with more extreme proportions and exaggerated features…


I even thought about designing a villain type character based on appeal. It possibly would have been more unique and interesting, at least when comparing it to a typical fluffy cute character.

From my initial designs and research, I had settled on a few key attributes I wanted to keep within my character design, they were…

  • Head Size/Shape – Large and Horizontally Oval Shaped
  • Ears – Large and capable of portraying emotion/feeling
  • Bone Structure – Skinny/Frail
  • Height – ≤ 3 Heads High (Less than or Equal to symbol)

I settled on these attributes as they would give the character a sympathetic feel to it. They also were in some of my favorite designs that I both looked at and drew.

However, I also intended on making the character in the role of a mentor. This may have stemmed from the mentor being one of my favorite of the archetypes. Then again, it may have been just from reading and studying the Mentor section in Vogler’s book The Writer’s Journey. Therefore, I needed him to inspire/demand respect through his design. He needed to look tough, wise and experienced. The sort of take-no-nonsense type of character. However, I still wanted him to have some sympathetic aspects to him (as most great mentors do).

I began researching further into how I wanted my character to look. My research led me back to the gaming side of the animation industry. Mainly because I wanted my character to function in this type of environment.


Below are some of my influences… As you will hopefully see, they share many/all the attributes that I previously mentioned that I wanted to keep within my characters design.

They are mainly examples of games characters, most of which I grew up with and personally find to be very appealing.

Ratchet And Clank – Insomniac Games

This was one of my favorite games series whenever I was younger, so no wonder it influenced my designs now. This game series has stood the test of time thus far, and it’s character and environment designs are stunning in my opinion.

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Even within the pictures above, we see clear examples of the 12 principles in action. Therefore, I feel that this was an excellent reference to work from.

Early Ratchet Designs – Image sourced from InsomniacGames.Com

I was considering making my character a wise old mechanic or engineer. Possibly with a robotic leg or arm to further exaggerate this profession.

Engineers/Mechanics from Ratchet and Clank – Image sourced from InsomniacGames.Com

Jak and Daxter – Naughty Dog

This game series is another childhood favorite of mine. It also adheres to a number of attributes and characteristics that I would like to replicate within my design.

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However, the mentor from Jak and Daxter was the main character I wanted to focus on. It was on the back of my mind when researching/designing this character. Even whenever I was reading Vogler’s book and his theories behind the mentor archetype.

Samos Hagai – Image sourced from JakAndDaxter.Wikia.Com

In the game, Hagai (above) was a very wise and noble mentor. He was a mentor that took no-nonsense but yet you still felt sympathetic towards. This may have been due to his height, proportions, stilts or the walking stick. Many of these sympathetic qualities shown in Hagai I would like to replicate within my own character design.

Dobby – Harry Potter

Talking about a character that fits the attributes I previously mentioned… Dobby is a perfect example, as he has a large horizontally oval head shape, large ears that help show his emotions, a skinny/frail bone structure and he is small (around 3 heads high)…

Therefore, I felt he deserved a mention as he is a very likable and appealing character.

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Whenever Dobby died it was a very key emotional moment within the film and for many fans. I feel this was mainly due to Dobby being such an appealing and likable character.


Dobby’s Gravestone – Image sourced from HarryPotter.Wikia.Com

Vogler – The Writer’s Journey: Mythic Structure for Writers

Christopher Vogler's The Writer's Journey
Image sourced from TheWritersJourney.Com

I considered many mentor qualities that I wanted my character to have. These were based on Vogler’s book and my previous post on the Mentor chapter within it. Click here to view it… [Pre-Warning: It is quite a long post]

Bolt – The Space-Specialised Engineering Mentor

Here is my initial design for Bolt that went on to further inspire my character rotation of him. Hopefully, my research into game characters makes more sense now…


I drew this rough character rotation in a neutral pose for our Life Drawing class to get some critique on it.


Overall, I feel it went quite successfully, I understand that I drew the character with some incorrect proportions as the rotation went along. However, all in all, I think most people that I asked found the character appealing.

In an attempt to fix the positions of body parts and shapes, I took the character back down to his silhouette and tried to make some adjustments to him.


I quickly made a rough digital version of the back view as I forgot to include it on my previous character rotation…


Testing the Principles…

I made a short animatic of a movement of my character (‘Bolt’)… I was trying to find a movement in which I could make use of multiple principles at the same time.

After Effects Screenshot

Apologies about the slight jumpiness, the After Effects file looks smooth but while rendering it out it became a bit jumpy.

Since Bolt is intended to be aged, slightly slower and reasonably realistic. I didn’t want to really exaggerate all the principles. However, I attempted to cover them all…

Squash and Stretch/Exaggeration/Secondary Action

I showed squash and stretch within his goggles and face (here are the frames below). The goggles and arms gave a nice amount of stretch, and the main source of squash was in the single frame of the goggles sucking into his face after the release.

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I think we can agree that the equipping goggles action is very exaggerated. This was intended to build a slight bit of humor and impact. This was actually intended to be a secondary action. I liked it so much that I tried to prioritize it more, However, I have still tried to leave it as a Secondary Action (the Primary Action being him taking a look at the out of place subject, which could be a loose nail or something).

Anticipation, Timing and Staging

The Anticipation was in the quick glances that Bolt gives the camera, alongside the action of reaching for the goggles. I made Bolt walk in from the side at the beginning to help with the staging and to build the anticipation. Bolt then sees something in a glance (like a loose screw) and then reaches for his goggles for a better look. I also used the rule of thirds, to stray away from everything being completely central. As well as to allow me to easily bring in the hammer/mallet in order to complete/conclude the movement.

Straight Ahead Action and Pose to Pose

It’s hard to show how I drew it. However, since it is more of an animatic, I used a mixture of Pose to Pose and Straight Ahead Action. However, I leaned more towards the Pose to Pose drawing style. It helped that I kept him at the same angle, so I could just move the drawing ahead slightly and work from the previous one.


Arcs/Follow Through and Overlapping Action

I tried to make his movements follow Arcs, even though I didn’t make it 24 fps. I feel it is still visible enough within the majority of his movements. (Paying attention to his arms in the frames below).

The Follow Through and Overlapping Action is shown again in the arms, head and ears. They all shoot back when the goggles are released, showing their follow through with the force build up in the goggles.

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Slow in and Out

I didn’t prioritize this principle much. However, there is slow in and out vaguely shown within the realisation of the out of place object, and again in the goggle stretch and release. (The tension is built up in the goggles and then released in the face squash.)

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Solid Drawing and Appeal

I attempted to draw in solid shapes, I broke him down into his basic shapes. This helped me to learn his shape better and more accurately, it could also be used as a reference for me if I couldn’t draw a movement correctly.


I feel Bolts looks appealing both with his goggles on and off. I don’t know if he looks appealing like a Hero or Villain (nor was he really intended too). Instead, I aimed his appeal towards the Mentor category, an often secondary (yet key) character to the story.


I gave him several interesting qualities and characteristics to make him more likable and visually interesting. Such as his robotic leg, his cane and his general hunched over shape and exaggerated (fantasy-based) proportions.

All these features add appeal and show experience, either through age, his knowledge of his profession (building himself a complex robotic leg). Even the very fact that he has a robotic leg, suggests he made a mistake and has learned from it (possibly referring back to his own Hero’s Journey)…


As you can hopefully see, many of the principles pair together very well and can be shown reasonably clearly through an action or movement. Obviously, some of the Principles aren’t shown as well as others. However, I have attempted to show all of them in one way or another.

Overall, I really enjoyed working on this task. I have attempted to input both my Life Drawing and general knowledge into this character, and I feel it has been successful. I have learned a large amount from this task, I would have liked to be able to devote more time to it and develop Bolt further (possibly recreating, rigging and texturing him in Maya). This may develop into a summer project for me.

15-25 Second Animation



Our task for this half of the Semester was to create a 25 second 3D animation. In order to do this we will be utilising Maya to explore genre, storytelling and the principles of animation.

My Team

My team members for this project are Erinn, Leanna and Michael. Please follow the links below to view their blogs and work.

Erinn Morrow –

Leanna Hillan –

Michael Lilley –


I am really enjoying this task and I look forward to working on it and developing upon it throughout the course of this semester.

Initial Recommendations/Suggestions

Genre – Our tutors recommended utilizing the comedy genre within our short animation. As it is much easier to tell a joke within 25 seconds, rather than build the anticipation required for a horror or thriller.

Character – We were advised to make a character with few to no limbs as it would make it easier to rig and animate. The example we were given was a bean, as it can still show its personality and expression through squash and stretch, alongside the other principles of animation.

Idea Generation and Concepts

We were given a week to develop a pitch that we would present to the tutors and the rest of the class.

Initially, we struggled in this area. I personally think it was because we were limiting ourselves… We were attempting to come up with a story revolving around a character with 2 or fewer limbs. As our tutors had advised, as it would make it easier to animate.

Rayman – (Image sourced from Wikipedia.Org)

In line with this idea of a limbless character, we thought about animating the life of either a bean or a rock. We considered how a rock could grow up (obviously taking the viewpoint that rocks would be conscious beings).

This video above was very helpful with the idea. However, we obviously didn’t have 5-6 minutes to tell a story. The success of a short relies on how long it is and what point it is trying to get across. If Seth Boyden’s short film (above) was limited to 25 seconds, it wouldn’t have had nearly as much impact as it did being just under 6 minutes long. Therefore, we had to gauge what type of story we could tell and what type of character would be best for telling that story.

Leading us to quickly figure out this idea was not for us… Any 25-second long rock concepts we had were lacking in narrative, intrigue and many other necessary aspects in order to create an appealing story. Besides all of this, it didn’t sound like much of a challenge to animate.

So we generated a number of ideas. We considered how difficult it would be to animate flightless birds, as they had less limbs to work with.

Here is the Pixar short that one of our tutors showed us in class that helped us come to the idea of birds.

After this we went through and watched a good few more Pixar shorts. These included shorts like Boundin’ (2003), Day and Night (2010), Piper (2016) and so on.

However, we decided to scrap this idea with birds as well. We wanted to take it a step further (by adding more limbs). Besides, we wanted to be original and not just copy Pixar.

We wanted our idea to be “out of this world”. And it literally was, as the idea that we settled on took place in space… We decided to focus our pitch on an astronaut concept. Don’t get me wrong the suggestions our tutors gave us were good, and probably would have been much easier to animate. But where is the fun in that?

Here are some of the space themed shorts that we looked at…

The next short fits perfectly with the style one of our lecturers mentioned in class. He said, not to tell a horror story in 25 seconds, instead tell a joke… “A fart joke can be told in 25 seconds”. He went on to say that a fart joke is simple to understand and to tell.

Character Design and Initial Ideas

We came up with a few concepts for narratives and characters. Here is an example of one of my quick sketches and rough storyboards.


The idea above is one of my early concepts (we all took a night to come up with a couple of concepts to discuss for the following day). Basically, our astronaut is flying around space, he lands on a moon to capture it. However, after planting his flag, he discovers that the planet is alive… And it didn’t appreciate being woken up.

I designed a rough character for our pitch (based on the image above). I wanted to keep it simple and make it as easy as possible for us to animate (due to the fact that we haven’t animated a character before… Alongside, him having a considerable amount more limbs than a bean).

Below is a turntable of our characters first initial design (rough).


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His limbs were too small for him to do what we needed him to do. Furthermore, we wanted to be able to control his animation to a further extent. After the pitch, one of the lecturers reminded us to be careful with lighting. As for a space scene, directional lights are used rather than spot lights.

Idea Development and Brand Designs

Idea Development

After meeting up to discuss ideas with each other, we developed our story. We tried to incorporate all of our ideas and in doing so completely changed it. We decided to base it on two astronauts and make it more of an advertisement campaign.

Whenever considering whether drinks brands would work in space. I remembered a Carlsberg background I had seen a while back, I showed it to my group. I feel that this image aided us in coming up with some new and more interesting ideas for our animated short.

Image sourced from WallPaperVortex.Com

Below is a more developed storyboard that we used for our pitch and most of the frames were in our first animatic.


As our idea quickly developed to incorporate drinks brands, we needed to start creating them. We started thinking about space-related words that could work with drinks brands.

Since establishing time is limited, we figured that the names of our drink brands need to be structured into two parts. Firstly, a space-related adjective or noun followed by a word that our audience would associate with a drink on Earth.

Following the two-part naming structure, we considered general astronomy (including the names of different moons, planets, suns, galaxies and so forth). This led to features commonly associated with them. For example, moons having craters, suns producing solar energy.

Image sourced from Aqua-Amore.Com

I designed a few ideas/concepts based on some of the “space drinks” we had been discussing in class.

Below is a logo I designed, “Crater Cola”, it was designed in the style of Coca-Cola (I redrew the font too). I thought it would help further establish the brand as both being a drink as well as being able to advertise in space… Coca-Cola is a company with an enterprise value just over £145 Billion. The company could actually advertise in space and it would barely make a dent in their funds. Therefore, in an attempt to help establish our idea and to keep some sense of realism, I thought this brand was appropriate.

Crator Cola Designs

I very much enjoyed looking at the Fallout concept art with my team. We noticed that they utilized the aging process for their in-game drinks brands and I tried that in the image above in the top right corner. This caused us to look at other in-game drinks brands, such as the well-known Call of Duty drinks brands.

Following a similar process to this, I designed another logo/brand based on a popular brand, Mountain Dew. Which we changed to Crater Dew. Which maybe should have been Meteor Dew, as the name would have been closer to the original brand, Mountain Dew.

Crater Dew

For the design above I tried to incorporate a few different colour schemes to test out what worked and what didn’t. I tried to use different saturation and value levels within them. I personally prefer the right column of colour schemes, in which I attempted to make use of the “Monochromatic colour harmony” discussed in the video below. In my opinion, even though the middle column stands out the most and are the most likely to be used in a brand (in order to grab your attention) they would be my least favourite.

I found this video below very interesting and helpful when I was trying to understand colour a little better.

The Main Brand…

In order to further develop the comedy within our short I wanted to try and incorporate a more humourous brand into it. After much thought, I was able to come up with a brand that actually fitted the category of the “fart joke”.

Uranus Juice Logo_02

I enjoyed creating this design and surprisingly my team was fine with the idea and found it rather humorous (as did many of my classmates that I pitched it to).

My other teammates also developed some designs for the drink brands (which you can find on their blogs).


The idea with the flag transforming into a billboard meant that it had to be designed. In the designs of my astronauts earlier, I had intended for a billboard.


Here is an example of a billboard design I did based on an earlier sketch/astronaut design.

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I liked the outcome of the billboard design above. However, I had made several other attempts to re-create other styles of billboards. Below is an example of a style that wasn’t working out as expected. Therefore, I stopped working on it and continued with the one above.


I obviously never finished it. However, it was based on an interesting art style that focused on 4 or so colours and only using solid shapes. Here is the style I had intended to replicate, but didn’t finish.

Image sourced from Strongstuff.Net.

I feel that it was the initial drawing, it was hard to express in only shapes, it didn’t enthuse me, it didn’t have any real character to it and I lost interest in it. I was working on patterns in the style shown above, I thought they were fun to design and they resulted looking reasonably successful. (Below) This was done using only circles mainly, with a few rectangles through in to make it more visually interesting.

Cool Pattern Design

I found more of the same style of work on the same website (StrongStuff.Net). Here are a few more shown in a slideshow below…

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I would have liked to explore this style more and give it another go. However, I had to move on and direct my focus/efforts back on to the character again…

Character Development

After our pitch, we were starting to design some more assets for the scene, I took on the character. We all had designed a few more ideas after the pitch for how the astronaut and his surroundings could look. Below are a few of my other concepts with more realistic (less exaggerated) proportions…

I tried considering varying sizes, the short and stumpy look gave the astronaut an appealing quality to it. However, the realistic proportions looked far better. We settled for proportions that were somewhere in the middle.

My teammates also had concepts and designs drawn up for the astronaut. Therefore, I tried to combine my ideas with theirs. Here are a few, of their designs (in the slideshow below).

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To see more of their designs, please follow the links to their blogs at the top of the post.

Anyways, back to the character design/modelling…

Below is the character that we went with for the short. I modelled him in more detail in comparison to the first rough design. The proportions are more human-like while still keeping some of the appealing qualities that the short and stumpy astronaut had.


We are still trying to go for the simple look and attempting to keep our poly-count to a minimum. This is mainly for later stages, as we intend on using Substance Painter for our texturing. Therefore, we can add further detail in later while maintaining a low poly count now.


Initial Skeletal Joint Stage

I started by building his skeletal structure in beneath the skin, this was the first main step in the rigging process and it was done by using joints.


The joint system starts at the Pelvis of the model, following 2 main stems.

  1. Pelvis > Spine & Neck/Head > Clavicles > Shoulders > Elbows > Wrists > Fingers & Thumbs
  2. Pelvis > Hips > Knees > Ankles > Feet

I know that there are joints for the forearms and thighs as well. They do not function as joints and are just there to help with possible weighting issues.

After making this skeletal rig of joints I then attached it to the skin through Geodesic Voxel binding method and roughly painted the skin. Following this, I added in some extra detail to the mesh. Extruding some elbow and knee guards from the original mesh. Therefore, he had to be re-skinned and re-weighted. For weighting the skin, I used a combination of the Paint Skin Weights tool and the Delta Mush weighting function (after having to paint the weights on 2 or 3 times before).

Painting Skin Weights.png

In the process of skinning and weighting our character, I watched a number of different tutorials. Many weren’t particularly useful, or didn’t tackle the issues I was facing properly. However, I found James Taylor’s tutorials particular useful for this skin weighting section.

Posing the Character

I had to test both the rig and the skin weighting to ensure that the character would work for what we need him to do… I done this by simply moving and posing the joints.

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After these poses, I tried more extreme poses for the fun of it. They were mainly film or game related ones.

Mario Jump.png
(Above Mario image reference sourced from NewSuperMarioBros2.Nintendo.Com)

The above image was testing his legs and arms, these were not really to extreme angles. However, it was just to see if there were any major issues with the initial rig.

Deadpool Pose 2
(Above Deadpool image reference sourced from MovieBoozer.Com)

The above image tests the legs, arms and the side/clavicle joints mainly. This was a funny pose that I enjoyed making. Yet, surprisingly functional at the same time. Even though it may not look like it, this is quite an extreme pose for the rig to be tested with. It uses almost every major joint in the body and stretches the skin/mesh substantially in a number of areas.

Adding Controls

I used IK Handles alongside NURBS Curves to create the proper Rig/Controls. I made a range of curves to attempt to cover all the movements the astronaut may need to make. I followed several tutorials in order to do this and I think it works quite well.


I tested the rig by trying out a few of the animations that we may actually need him to do. Here is an example of a jump and a front flip that I animated using the rig (not that he will need to do a front flip).

Alike with the poses, I then tried a few more extreme movements that could test the skin weighting at some of the extreme angles/positions. Below is a quick interpretation of him dancing Russian style.

After I had messed about with it making the astronaut do some funny movements/poses. I finished my last pose (as the rest of my group wanted to take on a couple of animations each to play around with the rig as well).

I tried to help out with the majority of the other movements. Since I rigged the character, I had a good idea how it worked. Therefore, I was glad to help fix a movement.

For all of the movements above (and the ones I helped my teammate on), I researched the movement and practiced the movement myself to try and make it look more realistic. For example, the heroic step up, the jump and even the vomiting scene I practiced to see how I would have done it naturally (I didn’t vomit obviously).the

If we take the jump for example, I took several jumps around the classroom/my bedroom and assumed many of the poses to help me understand how it worked. Unfortunately (or maybe fortunately), I don’t have any videos of me jumping around looking like an idiot. However, I feel that it helped a lot in giving the poses some realism and expression.

UV Mapping/Unwrapping

I first decided on a rough colour scheme for the astronaut (below) before beginning the UV mapping process for him. This had to be done for both his backpack and chest plate too, as you can see in the image below.


It helped visualise what the astronaut would roughly look like and acted as a bit of a guide for later in the process. However, I had specifically split them into around 3 to 4 different materials each to allow for me to overlap the UV maps.

I was able to do this as Substance Painter treated each material as a separate UV. Therefore, allowing me to leave to overlap each material in the UV editor, allowing the UVs to have more room, meaning more detail.

Below is the UV Map for the Backpack. This was the first piece I unwrapped and I didn’t use the overlapping multi-material technique on it.


Below is an example of the overlapped UVs that I unwrapped. I first split it all over 4 planes, making sure each material covered a full plane, then moved them back over to the original UV map plane.


Although this UV looks extremely messy and looks like it may not work… It does, and it makes it easier to manage in Substance Painter. The above UV map has 3 layers.

  1. Body and Legs
  2. Arms
  3. Head/Helmet

The next UV, although it looks cleaner, is also layered in a similar structure (except just in material/colour sections instead).


Alright, after unwrapping all the UVs the meshes are each exported separately to be imported into Substance Painter. The files were exported as ‘.fbx’ to ensure that the materials would be kept separate when opened in Substance Painter. (Saving as ‘.obj’ didn’t keep the different material presets that I required).

Substance Painter

I have to say Substance Painter did take a number of attempts to create a decent result.

Substance Painter allowed us to create more natural looking textures and designs on our meshes through the UV maps.

Importing to Substance Painter was easy enough once we figured out how to do it properly. It was exporting from Maya that took longer to figure out. However, after watching about 3 tutorials on it, we figured out how to do it properly.


Above is how it looks when it is imported into Substance Painter. This is the one mesh of the astronaut body and it is shown in both 3D (left) and 2D (right).

The overlapping UVs/multiple materials were able to be seen/selected/textured individually. Below are the 3 overlapping meshes in the Astronauts UV map.

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These allowed for each pieces visibility to be turned on or off, making it easy to focus on particular areas of the mesh.


This is basically how the backpack and chest piece looks inside Substance Painter as well.

‘Uranus Juice’ Astronaut

Based on the colour scheme I showed earlier in the UV section of the post I designed the character piece by piece. I began with the backpack, here are a few Substance Painter renders of the backpack after being textured.

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I used a range of materials in this backback. I used fabrics for main blue section, PVC/Iron for the canister and a mixture of Pure Aluminium and other metals for the remainder of the pieces. I applied a slight rust texture to some metallic parts of the backpack and through using height maps I was able to add external dirt effects and such around the rest.

I tried to use maintain the same colour and materials as I continued to work on the next meshes/parts of the character. Here are a few of my renders after finishing the astronaut.

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I made further use of height maps on the astronaut himself to add detail to him, such as the vents and large zip down his front. I was able to make use of different brushes, textures, alphas and stencils to add additional features and details to him. We wanted the reveal of the main astronauts brand to be suggested to, but not fully revealed until the end. Therefore, I added small “UJ” prints on to different parts of his gear to subtly hint to it.

Below is the final piece of the character, the chest piece…

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After much consideration, we named our astronauts after the legendary characters ‘Buzz‘ and ‘Zerg‘ from Toy Story. We thought that this was applicable as the two characters are rivals in the Toy Story film, as well as being space-themed characters. Furthermore, we are studying an Animation course, and Toy Story was the first fully 3D animated feature-length film.

Crater Cola Astronaut

Since there doesn’t seem to be any hue tool (to change the colour) of brush strokes, I had to re-do the majority of this astronaut… I changed the ‘UJ’ designs to ‘CC’, I re-drew the vents and extra details. Thankfully, the fill layers were able to be changed reasonably easily, so the fabric texture was able to be changed colour with ease.

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Designing the chest plate was a reasonably similar process… I added a few different detail/decals to it to create more variance between the two astronauts. I also changed the nameplate to ‘Zurg’ rather than ‘Buzz’, as I explained earlier, those are the names we went with.

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Importing Textures

This was a bit of a struggle for a good while at first. However, once I found this tutorial (6-part) we were able to import all of our Substance Painter textures into Maya again. I found these tutorials very useful, as they went into detail on how and why we were importing certain things and taking certain steps.

When exporting the textures from Substance Painter it saves them as 6 different maps (Diffuse/Specular/Roughness/f0/Normal/Height) per section. The maps then get imported into the material attributes of an aiStandard material.

War Amongst The Brands

Once I was able to import their textures, I was able to adjust their rigs. Therefore, to ensure they worked as intended, I put them into fighting poses to test some of their extremes.


Since we decided to animate before texturing I had to figure out how to properly transfer the animations we had on the non-textured rig to the textured rig. It was reasonably easy to do, I followed this tutorial on each of the NURBS controls.

I then transferred the Substance Painter textures to the animated rigs (shown below). The astronaut itself (not including the backpack/chest plate) has around 25 individual texture maps (including diffuse colour map/bump maps/roughness maps and so on).

Above is an example of the animation being transferred from the non-textured character to the textured character.

After this, I created a scene including all of the animations that each astronaut would need to do alongside the textured rigged characters. (There were around 5 or 6 different animations that needed to be transferred). We took the approach of having an individual character per animation, which we would position within a master copy of the scene and key the visibility on and off.

Assembly and Rendering

After transferring all the animations to the textured rigged character, I cleaned up the scene a bit more before importing it into the main “Master Copy” file/scene. It was all reasonably clean, except for the fact that I only named the original astronauts components (meshes/rigs etc.)… Therefore, meaning that the other 4 imported astronauts had the file name before them in the Outliner.


Here are the four Crater Cola Astronaut Animations together in one scene…

I set a project for my astronauts, which was separate to the project of the scene file. This later turned out to be a bit of an issue, resulting in having to re-path/source the original texture files individually (as well as through the file-path editor).

Once we had the file all put together on the master copy, I had the unfortunate task of cleaning it all up. I had a video of me scrolling through the Maya Outliner and it lasted around 45 seconds (with me scrolling at a decent pace). However, after spending about 15 minutes or so, I had it looking reasonably clean and manageable…

We collectively mapped out the scene. I positioned the astronauts roughly where they were meant to be and fixed their animations to allow them to not jump back to their original position. Then we messed around with lighting (directional lights and skydomes). We applied the background onto several planes and created a hexagonal shape around the scene to cover the surroundings with a starry background. We adjusted the planes to allow the directional light to pass through them. Erinn and Leanna imported their camera movements and we positioned them around the scene.

Settling on a Title

We eventually settled on our title… “Freshly Squeezed”, we felt that this was a suitable title for both our drinks brands and for the possible double meanings.

I designed a few titles in a mixture of font types and styles below…

Freshly Squeezed Title Ideas

Final Assembly

After we had everything assembled we set the project again, sorted out minor problems and then copied it to memory sticks to render on several other Macs. I think by the end we were rendering over 4 Macs, and it took 2-3 days roughly to render out our animation (roughly 5 minutes per frame).

Below is our first render version of the ‘Freshly Squeezed’ Animation.


After presenting our initial ideas, processes and final Animation to our lecturers and classmates, we were asked to make the following corrections:

  • Character Lighting (make them stand out more)
  • General Lighting of the Scene
  • Staging and Camera Turns
  • Smoothen Terrain
  • Make the Billboard Clearer (Possible Logo Re-Designs)
  • Develop the Billboard Shadow
  • Title/Credits
  • Astronaut Visibilities and other minor Continuity Errors

In order to make these corrections, we realised that the entire animation would need re-rendered. Therefore, we needed our corrections to be made with at least 3 to 4 days left to render before hand-in.

Making Corrections

We attempted to make these corrections within our animation and I feel they were reasonably successful.

  • We used Light Linking (to a further extent than before) and connected a directional light to hit all of our astronauts, bringing them out more and giving them more of a definition. In order to bring more attention to the astronaut we altered the starey backgrounds colour to make it more of a blue-white.
  • We added a warm orange spot light to the cabin in the lander. We also added in a few more directional lights with a slight colour to them. We utilised light-linking again for this.
  • We adjusted a few camera in order for it to make more sense in terms of continuity and staging. For example, we flipped the camera on the long-shot realisation scene to match the head rotation of the UJ astronaut.
  • Smoothen Terrain, we adjusted the bump mapping and other Substance Painter files to draw more attention towards the astronaut and smoothen the terrain. We also adjusted the mesh of the terrain to bring down the harsh extruding areas.
  • We adjusted the font on the Billboard, and the size proportions of the key attributes on the billboard to make it more visibly clear. We were running low on time due to other projects overlapping with our corrections, the re-rendering time (3-4 days) and the assembly/editing process. Therefore, we didn’t adjust the shadow as much as we would have liked. However, I think it doesn’t impact it that much.
  • The title was done in the famous Guardians of the Galaxy style font to reference back to the genre of a space-comedy. The credits were altered slightly as well, due to them being so plain and boring.
  • We tried to go through and fix all the continuity errors (including the final scene where the UJ astronauts visibility was keyed off).